Словообразовательные суффиксы существительных

-er to convert – преобразовывать converter – преобразователь

-or to insulate – изолировать insulator – изолятор

-ing to bеgin – начинать beginning – начало

-ment to develop – развивать development – развитие

-th strong – сильный strength –сила

-ion to express –выражать expression –выражение

-ation to inform –сообщать information – сообщение

-sion to decide – решать decision – решение

-ssion to permit –разрешать permission – разрешение

-ance to assist – помогать assistance – помощь

-ity equal –равный equality – равенство

-ness happy – счастливый happiness – счастье

-ancy constant – постоянный constancy – постоянство

-ence to differ – отличаться difference – отличие

-ency to depend – зависеть dependency – зависимость

-age to break – ломать breakage – поломка

Exercise 1. Образуйте существительные с помощью данных суффиксов. Переведите исходные и производные слова

-ist physic (s), telegraph, special, social

-ity equal, human, activ(e), relativ(e), productiv(e)

-er to read, to lectur(e), to report, to convert

-ness thick, black, great, rough

-ance import(ant), dist(ant)

-ment to measure, to develop

-ency effici(ent), to depend

Exercise 2. В выделенных словах укажите суффиксы существительных и переведите данные сочетания

The usage of a word; the simplicityof the equation; the expression of relativity; the roughness of the surface; temperature readings; atom structure; the solution of the problem; the productivityof a worker; the efficiency of the method; the equality of positions

Internet

Найдите в словаре и запишите транскрипцию следующих слов. Правильно прочитайте данные слова несколько раз вслух и постарайтесь запомнить их произношение

Defense, agency, initiate, survive, available, request, early, service, via, dial, accept, huge, expectation

Words to be learnt

The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency – американское агентство (управление) перспективных технологий (перспективного планирования научно-исследовательских работ) при Министерстве Обороны США

to initiate – выдвигать, начинать

objective – цель

internetting project – проект межсетевого взаимодействия

to embrace – охватывать

to survive – пережить

to device – придумывать, изобретать

request – просьба, запрос

to resemble – напоминать, быть похожим

it wasn’t until… that…- только в …

to share information – делиться информацией

early taker – первый потребитель

huge – гигантский

to hire – брать в аренду

superhighway – магистраль

to be phased out – быть замененным, вытесненным

to accept – принимать

to fall outside – выпасть из … (хода событий, истории, процесса)

to keep up to the minute with – быть в курсе … (событий, новостей и т.д.)

commodity – предмет потребления

Text

In 1973, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) initiated a research program to investigate techniques and technologies for interlinking packet networks of various kinds. The objective was to develop communication protocols, which would allow networked computers to communicate transparently across multiple, linked packet networks. This was called the Internetting project and the system of networks which emerged from the research was known as the “Internet”. The system of protocols, which was

developed over the course of this research effort, became known as the TCP/IP Protocol Suite: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP).

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States as a military experiment. It was started by the US Department of Defense for research into networking sometime in 1969. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another.

Many people wanted to put their ideas into the standards for communication between the computers that made up this network, so a system was devised for putting forward ideas. Basically they wrote your ideas in a paper called a “Request for Comments” (RFC for short), and let everyone use it. People commented on and improved their ideas in new RFCs. The first RFC was written on April 7th, 1969 – this is probably the closest thing to a “start date” for the Internet. There are now over 2000 RFCs, describing every aspect of how the Internet functions.

ARPANET was opened to non-military users later in the 1970s, and early takers were the big universities – although at this stage it resembled nothing like the Internet we know today. International connections (i.e. outside America) started in 1972, but the Internet was still just a way for computers to talk to each other and for research into networking there was no World-Wide-Web and e-mail as we know it. It wasn’t until the early to mid 1980s that the services we use most now started appearing on the Internet. The concept of «domain names», things like ‘www.microsoft.com.’ (Microsoft’s web server), wasn’t even introduced until 1984 – before that all the computers were just addressed by their IP addresses (numbers). Most protocols for e-mail and other services appeared after this.

The part of the Internet most people are probably most familiar with is the World-Wide-Web. This is a collection of hyperlinked pages of information distributed over the Internet via a network protocol called HTTP (hyper-text-transfer-protocol). This was invented by Tim Berners Lee in 1989. He was a physicist working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory, and wanted a way for physicists to share information about their research – the World-Wide-Web was his solution. So the web started, although at this time it was text only. Graphics came later with a browser called NCSA Mosaic. Both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape were originally based on NCSA Mosaic.

The graphical interface opened up the Internet to novice users and in 1993 its use exploded as people were allowed to dial-in to the Internet using their computer

at home and a modem to ring up an “Internet Service Provider” (ISP) to get their connection of this (now huge) network. Before this the only computers connected were at Universities and other large organizations that could afford to hire cables between each other to transfer the data over – but now anyone could use the Internet and evolved into Information Superhighway that we know and (possibly) love today.

Electronic mail was introduced in 1972 by Ray Tomlinson. NCP was phased out by a new communications protocol technology—Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) which was created by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf in1973. It was accepted by the U.S. government in 1978, and became de facto networking standard in 1983. More networks began to pop up in the 1980s. Educational and commercial organizations that fell outside the original charter wanted to use the same packet-switching technologies. And the system came to be known as the Internet during this period. It had far exceeded its original purpose, and was providing the impetus for a vast technological revolution that was just ahead.

Today people can search thousands of databases and libraries worldwide in several languages, browser through hundreds of millions of documents, journals, books, and computer programs, and keep up to the minute with wire-service news, sports, and weather reports. An increasing number of people shop, bank, and pay bills on the Internet. Many people invest in stocks and commodities online. It’s a powerful symbol of society’s expectations about the future—fast-moving technology that adds convenience and efficiency to their lives.

Задание I. Выберите правильный ответ на вопрос по тексту:

1. What did DARPA initiate?

a) internetting project

b) TCP/IP protocol Suite

c) a research program for internetting packet networks

2. What was a reason of creation the Internet?

a) to talk with each other

b) to survive a nuclear war

c) to send an important information

3. What could people do in the RFCs?

a) comment and improve their ideas of communication

b) get acquaintance

c) write letters

4. Who were the early takers of Internet?

a) the Russian Department of Defense

b) civil users

c) big universities and large organizations

5. Why did Tim Bernes Lee invent the WWW?

a) to become famous

b) to earn his living

c) to share information about physicists’ research

6. What was introduced by Ray Tomlinson?

a) graphical interface

b) electronic mail

c) browser

Задание II. Используя слова и комбинации слов из текста, выделите главную мысль каждого абзаца своими собственными 2-3 предложениями на английском языке. Предложения должны быть краткими, логичными, связанными друг с другом.

Задание III. Выполнив все упражнения, будьте готовы побеседовать по теме «Интернет» на английском языке в группе.

Unit 20.

Grammar Revision


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