II. Choose the appropriate word to complete each of the following sentences

1. One phylum of animals, the chordates, has been more intensively studied than has any other, because it _________ nearly all the world's largest and most familiar animals as well as humans.

a) composes b) comprises c) contains d) consists

2. All birds are covered with _________, collectively called plumage, which are specialized structures of the epidermis, or outer layer of skin.

a) wool b) hair c) feathers d) fur

3. The eyes of birds are large and _________ excellent vision.

a) provide b) produce c) supply d) deliver

4. There are three eyelids that _________ the eyes of birds.

a) defend b) pretend c) prevent d) protect

5. Birds have well-developed brains, which provide acute sensory _________, keen balance and coordination, and instinctive behaviour, along with a surprising degree of intelligence.

a) conception b) reception c) perception d) perfection

6. Plant-eaters, or _________, often do not have to search far to find things to eat, and in some cases – for example wood-boring insects — they are entirely surrounded by their food.

a) herbivores b) omnivores c) carnivores d) scavengers

7. A group of animals — composed chiefly of birds, but also including some bats and insects —_________ to warmer regions before the winter begins and returns again in spring.

a) travels b) emigrates c) roams d) migrates

8. In animals such as jellyfish and non-parasitic flatworms wastes are _________ through the mouth.

a) extracted b) excreted c) secreted d) protracted

9. Growing points, called meristems, are located either at the stem and root _________, where they are responsible for the primary growth of plants, or laterally in stems and roots, where they are responsible for secondary plant growth.

a) tips b) surface c) edges d) tops

10. She has _________ three hip replacement surgeries in the last three years.

a) gone under b) gone over c) undergone d) overcome

11. Most herbs grow well in dry _________.

a) land b) earth c) ground d) soil

12. The jungle is so _________ you cannot walk through it.

a) solid b) dense c) concentrated d) crowded

13. Despite the benefits _________ from genetic advancements, some observers have voiced concerns that genetically engineered organisms could harm people or the environment.

a) arrived b) arisen c) acquired d) derived

14. Parsley should have a deep, _________, fertile soil for ideal growth.

a) wet b) humid c) moist d) damp

15. Most house plants _________ regular watering.

a) require b) inquire c) desire d) demand

16. Sewage is _________ directly into the sea.

a) delivered b) unloaded c) dispatched d) discharged

17. The college's facilities _________ those of Harvard and Yale.

a) compete b) match c) rival d) contend

18. The function of roots is to _________ the plant to its substrate and to absorb water and minerals.

a) anchor b) connect b) attach d) join

19. Waxes, such as cutin and suberin, _________water loss from cells.

a) cut b) reduce c) shorten d) increase

20. Tropical forests have existed longer than any other forests on earth and their plants and animals have evolved a/an _________ web of interrelationships.

a) detailed b) refined c) laboured d) elaborate